Index

A

ACK, Three-Way Handshake
adaptation, Slow-Start
adaptive bitrate streaming, Adapt to Variable Bandwidth
addressing TCP considerations, Using Multiple TCP Connections
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), Congestion Avoidance and Control
AJAX, XMLHttpRequest
Akamai Technologies, Bandwidth at the Network Edge
algorithms
congestion avoidance, Slow-Start
fast recovery, Slow-Start
fast retransmit, Slow-Start
Multiplicative Decrease and Additive Increase (AIMD), Congestion Avoidance
Nagles, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
slow start, Slow-Start
ALOHAnet protocol, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
ALPN, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
NPN and, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
API layers, Optimizing Physical and Transport Layers
application APIs, Application APIs and ProtocolsApplication APIs and Protocols
application layer connectivity
physical vs., Core Network (CN)
application layer optimizations, Concatenation and Spriting
limitations of, Concatenation and Spriting
application layer protocol negotiation (see ALPN)
Application Resource Optimizer (ARO)
components, Preserve Battery Power
measuring energy use with, Preserve Battery Power
website, Preserve Battery Power
application(s)
custom protocols for, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
data, Sending Application Data
improving performance, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
keep-alives, eliminating, Eliminate Unnecessary Application Keepalives
memory use limitations, Concatenation and Spriting
messages, fragmenting, Binary Framing Layer
performance, Design and Technical Goals
untrusted code, Network Security and Sandboxing
updating, Concatenation and Spriting
wired, Ubiquitous Connectivity
application-layer pipelining, Concatenation and Spriting
APSD (Automatic Power Save Delivery), Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
architecture (mobile networks), End-to-End Carrier ArchitectureBackhaul Capacity and Latency
backhaul capacity of, Backhaul Capacity and LatencyBackhaul Capacity and Latency
core network, Core Network (CN)Core Network (CN)
latency and, Backhaul Capacity and LatencyBackhaul Capacity and Latency
Radio Access Network (RAN), Radio Access Network (RAN)Radio Access Network (RAN)
ArrayBuffer, Receiving Text and Binary Data
Asterisk, Signaling and Session Negotiation
AT&T Application Resource Optimizer, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power
audio engines, Audio and Video EnginesAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
acquiring with getUserMedia, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMediaAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
bitrates for, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
DataChannel vs., Data Efficiency and Compression
documentation for, Audio and Video Engines
audio streams, Audio, Video, and Data StreamingAudio, Video, and Data Streaming
acquiring, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMediaAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
delivery quality of, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
encrypting, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
OPUS bitrate codec, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
processing of, Audio and Video Engines
Web Audio API, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
authentication, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
authentication management, Resource and Client State Caching
auto-reconnect, EventSource API
automatic socket pooling, Connection Management and Optimization
availability of connectivity, Ubiquitous Connectivity

B

back-end performance, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
background updates, enegery costs of, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
backhaul capacity of mobile networks, Backhaul Capacity and LatencyBackhaul Capacity and Latency
bandwidth, Speed Is a Feature, Bandwidth in Core NetworksDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
allocating, Adapt to Variable Bandwidth
at network edge, Bandwidth at the Network EdgeBandwidth at the Network Edge
benefits of, More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (Much)
bottleneck, Bandwidth at the Network Edge
demand for higher, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
for wireless networks, BandwidthBandwidth
latency vs., Latency as a Performance Bottleneck
limitations of, More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (Much)
lower latencies and, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower LatenciesDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
media streaming bitrates and, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
peer-to-peer streaming and, Audio, Video, and Data Streaming
variable, adapting to, Adapt to Variable BandwidthAdapt to Variable Bandwidth
web performance and, More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (Much)More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (Much)
Wi-Fi networks and, Leverage Unmetered Bandwidth
bandwidth-delay product
components of, Bandwidth-Delay Product
bandwidth-delay product (BDP), Bandwidth-Delay ProductBandwidth-Delay Product
base64, Resource Inlining
battery power
AT&T Application Resource Optimizer and, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power
networking and, Preserve Battery Power
preserving, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power, Account for RRC State Transitions
beacon requests, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
Belshe, Mike, Latency as a Performance Bottleneck
Berners-Lee, Tim, HTTP 0.9: The One-Line Protocol
binary data
receiving, Receiving Text and Binary DataReceiving Text and Binary Data
sending, Sending Text and Binary DataSending Text and Binary Data
binary framing layer, Binary Framing Layer
analyzing data flow, Analyzing HTTP/2 Frame Data FlowAnalyzing HTTP/2 Frame Data Flow
application data and, Sending Application Data
HTTP/2 and, Brief Introduction to Binary FramingAnalyzing HTTP/2 Frame Data Flow
initiating new streams, Initiating a New StreamInitiating a New Stream
SCTP vs., Delivering application data with SCTP
WebSocket protocol and, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
binary transfers
SSE and, Event Stream Protocol
WebSocket and, Custom Application Protocols
blob interface, Downloading Data with XHR
Blob objects, Receiving Text and Binary Data
Bluetooth, Ubiquitous Connectivity
browser networking, Primer on Browser NetworkingApplication APIs and Protocols
application APIs, Application APIs and ProtocolsApplication APIs and Protocols
application protocols, Application APIs and ProtocolsApplication APIs and Protocols
client state caching, Resource and Client State CachingResource and Client State Caching
connection management, Connection Management and OptimizationConnection Management and Optimization
optimizing for, Connection Management and OptimizationConnection Management and Optimization
resource caching, Resource and Client State CachingResource and Client State Caching
sandboxing, Network Security and SandboxingNetwork Security and Sandboxing
security, Network Security and SandboxingNetwork Security and Sandboxing
stack, Connection Management and Optimization
browser request prioritization, in HTTP/2, Stream Prioritization
browser(s)
authentication management, Resource and Client State Caching
caches, Custom Application Protocols
certificates, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
cookie management, Resource and Client State Caching
graphics rendering pipelines, Primer on Browser Networking
JavaScript VMs, Primer on Browser Networking
media engines in, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
multiplexing support in, Protocol Extensions
networking engines in, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
optimization caches, Primer on Browser Networking
optimizing for, Browser OptimizationBrowser Optimization
performance, Primer on Browser Networking
process management, Primer on Browser Networking
security sandboxes, Primer on Browser Networking
session management, Resource and Client State Caching
storage, Primer on Browser Networking
bufferbloat, The Many Components of Latency
bundling notifications, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
byte-stream oriented protocol, Null Protocol Services

C

cache lifetime, Cache Resources on the Client
Cache-Control header, Cache Resources on the Client
caching
client state, Resource and Client State CachingResource and Client State Caching
resources, Resource and Client State CachingResource and Client State Caching
resources on client, Cache Resources on the ClientCache Resources on the Client
on smart phones, Cache Resources on the Client
caching data, Early Termination
calculating image memory requirements, Concatenation and Spriting
Canvas API, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
capacity planning, WebRTC and, Infrastructure and Capacity PlanningInfrastructure and Capacity Planning
Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
CDMA-based networks, Evolution of 3G Technologies
limitations, EV-DO (CDMA) RRC State Machine
cell DCH
transition from cell FACH to, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
UMTS RRC State Machine, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
cell FACH
transition from cell DCH to, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
UMTS RRC State Machine, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
cell-breathing, Signal Power
cellular connections, worldwide, Mobile Networks
Cerf, Vint, Building Blocks of TCP
certificate authorities, Chain of Trust and Certificate AuthoritiesChain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
Certificate Revocation List (CRL), Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
certificate authorities (CA), Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
Certificate Revocation List (CRL), Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
certificates
browser, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
Certificate Revocation List (CRL), Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
check status, Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
errors, HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
invalidating, Certificate Revocation
manually specified, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
operating system, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
reduce size of, Certificate-Chain Length
revocation, Certificate RevocationOnline Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
root authority, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
self-signed, Secure Communication with DTLS
chain of trust, Chain of Trust and Certificate AuthoritiesChain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
DTLS and, Secure Communication with DTLS
establishing, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
length of, and performance, Certificate-Chain LengthCertificate-Chain Length
WebRTC and, Secure Communication with DTLS
channels, Bandwidth in Core Networks
checksum, Null Protocol Services
chosen network latencies, HTTP Pipelining
Chrome (Google)
inspecting WebRTC connections with, Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
optimizations in, Browser Optimization
RTC support in, WebRTC
speculative networking optimization in, Connection Management and Optimization
WebRTC support, WebRTC
client connection limit, Using Multiple TCP Connections
client requests, HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
client state caching, Resource and Client State CachingResource and Client State Caching
CoDel actvie queue management algorithm, The Many Components of Latency
coding HTTP/2 headers, Header Compression
Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
combining CSS files, Concatenation and Spriting
combining JavaScript files, Concatenation and Spriting
communication
limits set by, Optimizing Physical and Transport Layers
physical properties of, Optimizing Physical and Transport Layers
scheduling, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
transactional request-response, Request and Response Streaming
compressing assets, Evergreen Performance Best Practices
compressing text-based assets, HTTP/1.X
concatenation, Concatenation and Spriting
configuring ETags, HTTP/1.X
congestion
avoidance, Congestion AvoidanceCongestion Avoidance
controlling, Congestion Avoidance and ControlSlow-Start
flow control of, Flow ControlFlow Control
slow start and, Slow-StartSlow-Start
congestion avoidance, Congestion Avoidance
built-in, Bandwidth-Delay Product
congestion avoidance algorithm, Slow-Start
congestion collapse, Congestion Avoidance and Control
congestion control, Bandwidth-Delay Product, Null Protocol Services
congestion control window (cwnd)
size of, Bandwidth-Delay Product
congestion window size, Slow-Start
increasing, Slow-Start
reset, Congestion Avoidance
connection closer, terminating, Session Caching and Stateless Resumption
connection keepalive, Parallelize Request and Response Processing
connection limits, Primer on Browser Networking, Network Security and Sandboxing
connection pool, Domain Sharding
connection setup latency, Early Termination
connection state tracking, Null Protocol Services
connections, limiting, Using Multiple TCP Connections
connectivity
availability, Ubiquitous Connectivity
demand for, Mobile Networks
expectations, Ubiquitous Connectivity
constraints on wireless networks, Performance Fundamentals of Wireless Networks
Content Delivery Network (CDN), Speed of Light and Propagation Latency, Early Termination
using, HTTP/1.X
continuous reception, LTE RRC State Machine
control-plane latency, Initiating a Request, Anticipate Network Latency Overhead
Cookie header, Eliminate Unnecessary Request Bytes
cookie management, Resource and Client State Caching
cookies, Measuring and Controlling Protocol Overhead
enabling, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
size of, Eliminate Unnecessary Request Bytes
core network (CN), Core Network (CN)Core Network (CN)
core network latency, Initiating a Request
cost-effectiveness, HSPA+ is Leading Worldwide 4G Adoption, User Equipment Category
web performance and, Speed, Performance, and Human Perception
costs of pipelining, Using Multiple TCP Connections
CPU cost, Using Multiple TCP Connections
createOffer() (RTCPeerConnection), Session Description Protocol (SDP)
creating render trees, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
CRL (Certificate Revocation List), Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
limitations of, Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
OCSP vs., Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS), Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
opt-in authentication mechanism, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
cross-origin resource sharing (CORS), Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
CSS bundle size vs. execution performance, Concatenation and Spriting
CSS files
combining, Concatenation and Spriting
CSS3 API, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
CSSOM, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
custom application protocols, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
custom protocols, WebSocket
streaming data and, Custom Application Protocols

D

data
caching, Early Termination
compression of, Data Efficiency and Compression
delivering, Delivering Media and Application DataDelivering application data with SCTP
efficiency of, Data Efficiency and Compression
replicating, Early Termination
streaming, Audio, Video, and Data StreamingAudio, Video, and Data Streaming
data bursts, Burst Your Data and Return to IdleBurst Your Data and Return to Idle
data flow
analyzing, Analyzing HTTP/2 Frame Data FlowAnalyzing HTTP/2 Frame Data Flow
data streams, encrypting, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
DataChannel API, Brief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API, DataChannelPartially Reliable Delivery and Message Size
audio engines vs., Data Efficiency and Compression
configuration options for, Configuring Message Order and Reliability
message order, configuring, Configuring Message Order and ReliabilityConfiguring Message Order and Reliability
message reliability, configuring, Configuring Message Order and ReliabilityConfiguring Message Order and Reliability
message size, limiting, Partially Reliable Delivery and Message SizePartially Reliable Delivery and Message Size
negotiations, Setup and NegotiationSetup and Negotiation
out-of-band negotiation, Setup and Negotiation
partially reliable delivery, Partially Reliable Delivery and Message SizePartially Reliable Delivery and Message Size
setup, Setup and NegotiationSetup and Negotiation
video engines vs., Data Efficiency and Compression
WebSocket vs., DataChannel
Datagram Transport Layer Secuirty (DTLS) protocol, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
datagrams, Building Blocks of UDP
distinguishing, Null Protocol Services
DATA_CHANNEL_OPEN message, Setup and Negotiation
decoding binary data, Receiving Text and Binary Data
dedicated IPs, Server Name Indication (SNI)
deferring management of individual sockets, Network Security and Sandboxing
deferring session state management, Resource and Client State Caching
defining latency, Real-Time Notifications and Delivery
delivering, outbound UDP traffic, Connection-State Timeouts
delivery order, Null Protocol Services
Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM), Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
delivery, real time, Real-Time Notifications and DeliveryLong-Polling with XHR
long-polling, Long-Polling with XHRLong-Polling with XHR
polling and, Polling with XHRPolling with XHR
demand for high speed connectivity, Mobile Networks
demand for higher bandwidth, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
demand for wireless data services, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
denial of service (DoS), Using Multiple TCP Connections
deploying HetNets, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
design assumptions, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
designing applications, Packet Flow in a Mobile Network, Primer on Browser Networking
destination port, Null Protocol Services
detecting pieplining compatibility, HTTP Pipelining
determining browser performance, Primer on Browser Networking
digital-to-analog conversion, Modulation
disabling TLS compression, TLS Compression
distinguishing datagrams, Null Protocol Services
DNS lookups
domain sharding and, Domain Sharding
high latency and, Domain Sharding
reducing, HTTP/1.X, Evergreen Performance Best Practices
DNS pre-resolve, Browser Optimization
Document Object Model (DOM), Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
documenting aware optimization, Browser Optimization
DOM, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
Domain Name System (DNS), Building Blocks of UDP
domain sharding, Domain ShardingDomain Sharding, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
DNS lookup and, Domain Sharding
formula for, Domain Sharding
manual, Domain Sharding
using, Domain Sharding
DOMString objects, Receiving Text and Binary Data
double compression, TLS Compression
downloading data
monitoring, Monitoring Download and Upload ProgressMonitoring Download and Upload Progress
with XMLHttpRequest (XHR), Downloading Data with XHRDownloading Data with XHR
DTLS, Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
handshake, Secure Communication with DTLS, Secure Communication with DTLS
identity provider and, Secure Communication with DTLS
TLS vs., Secure Communication with DTLS

E

EDGE (Enhanced Data rates fo GSM Evolution), First Data Services with 2G
efficient resource caching, Resource and Client State Caching
emulating WebSocket, WebSocket API
enabling cookies, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
enabling HTTP authentication, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
enabling pipelining, HTTP Pipelining
encrypted channels
establishing, Computational Costs
maintaining, Computational Costs
encrypted TLS tunnels, Server Name Indication (SNI)
encrypting
media payloads for WebRTC, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
with DTLS, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
encryption, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
end-to-end latency, Initiating a Request
end-to-end tunnels, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
energy costs of background updates, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
energy tails, Inefficiency of Periodic Transfers
energy use on wireless devices, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power
error handling in HTTP/2, HTTP/2
establishing chains of trust, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
establishing encrypted channels, Computational Costs
establishing performance strategy, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
establishing TLS connections, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
ETag header, Cache Resources on the Client
ETags, HTTP/1.X
Ethernet standard, WiFi
history, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
Ethernet vs. Wi-Fi, From Ethernet to a Wireless LANFrom Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
EV-DO (CDMA)
HSPA vs., End-to-End Carrier Architecture
LTE vs., End-to-End Carrier Architecture
RRC state machine for, EV-DO (CDMA) RRC State MachineEV-DO (CDMA) RRC State Machine
EVDO, Ubiquitous Connectivity
event boundaries, Event Stream Protocol
event payload, Event Stream Protocol
event stream protocol, Event Stream ProtocolEvent Stream Protocol
EventSource API, EventSource APIEventSource API
auto-reconnect and, EventSource API
emulating with JavaScript, EventSource API
SSE and, SSE Use Cases and Performance
Websocket vs., WebSocket API
evergreen optimizations, HTTP/1.X, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
Evergreen performance best practices, Evergreen Performance Best PracticesParallelize Request and Response Processing
caching resources on client, Cache Resources on the ClientCache Resources on the Client
request bytes, streamlining, Eliminate Unnecessary Request BytesEliminate Unnecessary Request Bytes
request processing, parallelizing, Parallelize Request and Response ProcessingParallelize Request and Response Processing
response processing, parallelizing, Parallelize Request and Response ProcessingParallelize Request and Response Processing
evolution of wireless standards, Building for the Multigeneration Future
Evolved Packet Core (EPC), Core Network (CN), Core Network (CN)
execution performance
CSS bundle size vs., Concatenation and Spriting
JavaScript bundle size vs., Concatenation and Spriting
Extended Validation (EV), OCSP Stapling
extensions
HTTP, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM), Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance

F

Facebook, Computational Costs
Facebook Chat and XHR long-polling, Long-Polling with XHR
fast recovery algorithm, Slow-Start
fast retransmit algorithm, Slow-Start
Federal Communication Commission (FCC), Bandwidth
fetching resources, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
using a proxy server to, Early Termination
using CDN to, Early Termination
Firefox, RTC support in, WebRTC
first in, first out (FIFO), HTTP Pipelining
first-hop latency, measuring, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
fixed length fields, Brief Introduction to Binary Framing
fixing perfromance regressions, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
flow control, Slow-Start
HTTP/2 and, HTTP/2
in HTTP/2, Flow Control
flow control window (rwnd), Bandwidth-Delay Product
forced pushes, Server Push
formatting requests, Primer on Browser Networking
formula for domain sharding, Domain Sharding
fragmenting application messages, Binary Framing Layer
frame aggregation, Packet Loss in WiFi Networks
frames, Streams, Messages, and Frames
HTTP/2 types, Brief Introduction to Binary Framing
implementing, Brief Introduction to Binary Framing
PUSH PROMISE, Server Push
settings, Server Push
WebSocket, Binary Framing Layer
frequency ranges, Bandwidth
front-end performance, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall

H

handshake
DTLS, Secure Communication with DTLS, Secure Communication with DTLS
HTTP Upgrade, Custom Application Protocols
Key and Accept, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
TCP, Three-Way Handshake
TCP, three-way, Three-Way HandshakeThree-Way Handshake
TLS, TLS HandshakeServer Name Indication (SNI)
WebSocket, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
hanging XHR, Using Multiple TCP Connections
Hangouts (Google), Multiparty Architectures
head-of-line blocking, Head-of-Line BlockingHead-of-Line Blocking, HTTP Pipelining, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
DataChannel and, Configuring Message Order and Reliability
HTTP/2 and, Request and Response Multiplexing, One Connection Per Origin
SCTP and, Delivering application data with SCTP
TCP, Head-of-Line BlockingHead-of-Line Blocking
WebSocket protocol, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
headers
Cache-Control, Cache Resources on the Client
compression, in HTTP/2, Header CompressionHeader Compression
Cookie, Eliminate Unnecessary Request Bytes
ETag, Cache Resources on the Client
HTTP/2 and, Header Compression
WebSocket, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
XHR, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
heterogeneous networks (HetNets), Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
deploying, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
infrastructure, Design for Variable Network Interface Availability
Hibernia Express, Speed Is a Feature
high latency variability, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
DNS lookups and, Domain Sharding
hostnames, Domain Sharding
HSPA, Ubiquitous Connectivity, User Equipment Category
EV-DO vs., End-to-End Carrier Architecture
LTE vs., End-to-End Carrier Architecture
networks, Evolution of 3GPP technologies
RRC state machines for, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State MachineHSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
HSPA+
4G adoption and, HSPA+ is Leading Worldwide 4G AdoptionHSPA+ is Leading Worldwide 4G Adoption
RRC state machines for, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State MachineHSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security), HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), Brief History of HTTPHTTP/2: Improving Transport Performance
as one-line protocol, HTTP 0.9: The One-Line ProtocolHTTP 0.9: The One-Line Protocol
authentication, enabling, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
extensions to, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
growth of, HTTP/1.0: Rapid Growth and Informational RFCHTTP/1.0: Rapid Growth and Informational RFC
headers, Measuring and Controlling Protocol Overhead
informational RFC for, HTTP/1.0: Rapid Growth and Informational RFCHTTP/1.0: Rapid Growth and Informational RFC
latency overhead, Anticipate Network Latency Overhead
leveraging requests, Long-Polling with XHR
limitations, HTTP Pipelining
multiplexing in, Using Multiple TCP Connections
performance improvements to, HTTP/2: Improving Transport PerformanceHTTP/2: Improving Transport Performance, Benefits of Keepalive Connections
pipelining, leveraging, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
redirects, Evergreen Performance Best Practices
redirects, avoiding, HTTP/1.X
request components, Anticipate Network Latency Overhead
standardization of, HTTP/1.1: Internet StandardHTTP/1.1: Internet Standard
Upgrade flow, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
Upgrade mechanism, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
version 1.x, HTTP/1.XResource Inlining
HTTP keepalive, Benefits of Keepalive Connections
HTTP requests
limiting, HTTP/1.X
states of, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
HTTP standard, Building Blocks of TCP
HTTP State Management Mechanism, Eliminate Unnecessary Request Bytes
HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS), HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
HTTP Upgrade handshake, Custom Application Protocols
HTTP upgrade negotiation, HTTP Upgrade NegotiationHTTP Upgrade Negotiation
HTTP Working Group (HTTP-WG), HTTP/1.0: Rapid Growth and Informational RFC
HTTP-WG, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
HTTP/1.x, HTTP/1.XResource Inlining
application performance, Design and Technical Goals
concatenating requests, Concatenation and SpritingConcatenation and Spriting
domain sharding, Domain ShardingDomain Sharding
keep-alive connections, Benefits of Keepalive ConnectionsBenefits of Keepalive Connections
optimizing applications for, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
pipelining, HTTP PipeliningHTTP Pipelining
protocol overhead, Measuring and Controlling Protocol OverheadMeasuring and Controlling Protocol Overhead
resource inlining in, Resource InliningResource Inlining
spriting requests, Concatenation and SpritingConcatenation and Spriting
TCP connections and, Using Multiple TCP ConnectionsUsing Multiple TCP Connections
HTTP/2, HTTP/2Analyzing HTTP/2 Frame Data Flow
binary framing layer, Binary Framing Layer
browser request prioritization and, Stream Prioritization
coding of headers, Header Compression
compression algorithm, Header Compression
development of, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
discovery, Upgrading to HTTP/2
error handling and, HTTP/2
flow control, HTTP/2, Flow Control
frame types, Brief Introduction to Binary Framing
frames, Streams, Messages, and FramesStreams, Messages, and Frames
goals of, HTTP/2
head-of-line blocking and, Request and Response Multiplexing, One Connection Per Origin
header compression in, Header CompressionHeader Compression
headers in, Header Compression
latency and, HTTP/2
messages in, Streams, Messages, and FramesStreams, Messages, and Frames
one request per origin and, One Connection Per OriginOne Connection Per Origin
optimizing applications for, Optimizing for HTTP/2
performance enhancements, Binary Framing Layer
request prioritization, Stream PrioritizationStream Prioritization
request/response multiplexing, Request and Response MultiplexingRequest and Response Multiplexing
research for, One Connection Per Origin
server pushes, Server Push
settings frames and, Server Push
snapshot, Request and Response Multiplexing
SPDY and, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
streams, Streams, Messages, and FramesStreams, Messages, and Frames
TCP connections and, One Connection Per OriginOne Connection Per Origin
updating browsers to, Upgrading to HTTP/2
upgrade mechanisms, HTTP/2
upgrading to, Upgrading to HTTP/2
HyBi Working Group, WebSocket Protocol
hypermedia transports, HTTP/1.0: Rapid Growth and Informational RFC
hypertext documents
defined, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
web applications vs., Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web ApplicationsHypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
web pages vs., Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web ApplicationsHypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Brief History of HTTPHTTP/2: Improving Transport Performance

I

ICE protocol, STUN, TURN, and ICE, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
connectivity status and, Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity StatusTracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
incremental provisioning of, Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)
NAT and, STUN, TURN, and ICE
tracking, Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity StatusTracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
Trickle, Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)
WebRTC, built-in, Establishing a Peer-to-Peer Connection
iceConnectionState attribute (ICE agents), Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
iceGatheringState attribute (ICE agents), Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
identifying performance regressions, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
identity provider, Secure Communication with DTLS
idle (UMTS RRC State Machine), HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
IETF Working Group, Standards and Development of WebRTC
image memory requirements, calculating, Concatenation and Spriting
image sprites, Concatenation and Spriting
IMT-Advanced requirements
for 4G, IMT-Advanced 4G RequirementsIMT-Advanced 4G Requirements
LTE-Advanced vs., Long Term Evolution (LTE)
infrastructure planning, WebRTC and, Infrastructure and Capacity PlanningInfrastructure and Capacity Planning
inlining
resource, Server Push
insecure links, HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
integrity, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
interaction optimization, Primer on Web Performance
Interactive Connectivity Establishment (see ICE protocol)
intermediaries, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
WebSocket and, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
intermediary caches, leveraging, Custom Application Protocols
intermediate CAs, Certificate-Chain Length
international performance characteristics, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
international standards, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), UDP and Network Address Translators
Internet Protocol (IP), Building Blocks of TCP
Internet Protocol next generation (IPng), Building Blocks of TCP
Internet Protocol Suite, Building Blocks of TCP
internet routing latency, Initiating a Request
Internet Stream Protocol (ST), Building Blocks of TCP
invalidating certificates, Certificate Revocation
IP protocols, Building Blocks of TCP
IPs
dedicated, Server Name Indication (SNI)
globally unique, UDP and Network Address Translators
Network Address Translator (NAT) specification, UDP and Network Address Translators
public, UDP and Network Address Translators
ISDN User Part (ISUP) signaling protocol, Signaling and Session Negotiation
ISM spectrum, WiFi
iTunes performance, HTTP/1.X

J

Jacobson, Van, Slow-Start
JavaScript, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
bundle size vs. execution performance, Concatenation and Spriting
combining files, Concatenation and Spriting
decoding binary data with, Receiving Text and Binary Data
emulating EventSource with, EventSource API
executing, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
Gmail and, Concatenation and Spriting
optimization of, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
JavaScript Session Establishment Protocol (see JSEP)
JavaScript VMs, Primer on Browser Networking
Jingle signaling protocol, Signaling and Session Negotiation
SDP and, Session Description Protocol (SDP)
jitters, Head-of-Line Blocking
in mobile networks, Initiating a Request
JSEP, SDP and, Session Description Protocol (SDP)

K

Karels, Michael J., Slow-Start
keep-alive connections, Benefits of Keepalive ConnectionsBenefits of Keepalive Connections
Key and Accept handshake, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
Khan, Bob, Building Blocks of TCP

L

last mile latency, Last-Mile LatencyLast-Mile Latency
latency, Speed Is a Feature, Speed Is a FeatureLast-Mile Latency
and jitter, Initiating a RequestInitiating a Request
bandwidth vs., Latency as a Performance Bottleneck
components of, The Many Components of LatencyThe Many Components of Latency
connection setup, Early Termination
control-plane, Initiating a Request, Anticipate Network Latency Overhead
core network, Initiating a Request
defining, Real-Time Notifications and Delivery
DTLS and, Secure Communication with DTLS
end-to-end, Initiating a Request
first-hop, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
high bandwidth and, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower LatenciesDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
high variability, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
HTTP/2 and, HTTP/2
identifying, Parallelize Request and Response Processing
improving, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
internet routing, Initiating a Request
last mile, Last-Mile LatencyLast-Mile Latency
measuring, Last-Mile Latency
media streaming and, Real-Time Network TransportsBrief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
mobile connections and, Brief History of the G’s
mobile networks and, Backhaul Capacity and LatencyBackhaul Capacity and Latency, Initiating a Request
network, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
new request, Initiating a Request
overhead, anticipating on mobile networks, Anticipate Network Latency OverheadDecouple User Interactions from Network Communication
peer-to-peer streaming and, Audio, Video, and Data Streaming
processing delay, The Many Components of Latency
propagation, Speed of Light and Propagation LatencySpeed of Light and Propagation Latency, Request and Response Streaming
propagation delay, The Many Components of Latency
queuing, Request and Response Streaming
queuing delay, The Many Components of Latency
reducing, HTTP/2
signal, Speed of Light and Propagation Latency
speed of light and, Speed of Light and Propagation LatencySpeed of Light and Propagation Latency
Traceroute, Last-Mile Latency
trading algorithms and, Speed Is a Feature
transmission delay, The Many Components of Latency
user-plane, Initiating a Request
user-plane one-way, Building for the Multigeneration Future
variable, adapting to, Adapt to Variable Latency
web performance and, Latency as a Performance BottleneckLatency as a Performance Bottleneck
wireless, Latency as a Performance Bottleneck
latency performance, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance, 3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements
least privilege principle, Network Security and Sandboxing
length of packet, Null Protocol Services
libjingle, STUN, TURN, and ICE
lifecycle of network sockets, Connection Management and Optimization
limiting
connections, Using Multiple TCP Connections
HTTP requests, HTTP/1.X
Linux, window scaling on, Flow Control
load balancing
sticky, Session Caching and Stateless Resumption
Local Area Network (LAN), Types of Wireless Networks
long discontinuous reception (Long DRX), LTE RRC State Machine
long DRX states, LTE RRC State Machine
long-polling, Long-Polling with XHRLong-Polling with XHR
Facebook Chat via, Long-Polling with XHR
LTE (Long Term Evolution), Ubiquitous Connectivity, Long Term Evolution (LTE)Long Term Evolution (LTE)
EPC network, Core Network (CN)
EV-DO vs., End-to-End Carrier Architecture
features of, Core Network (CN)
HSPA vs., End-to-End Carrier Architecture
RRC state machine for, LTE RRC State MachineLTE RRC State Machine
standard, Long Term Evolution (LTE)
LTE-Advanced, IMT-Advanced 4G Requirements
IMT-Advanced, Long Term Evolution (LTE)

M

maintaining encrypted channels, Computational Costs
managing connections, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
managing wireless network capacity, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
manual domain sharding, Domain Sharding
manually specified certificates, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
max age attribute (HSTS), HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
maximum channel capacity, Performance Fundamentals of Wireless Networks
maximum request parallelism, Using Multiple TCP Connections
maximum segment size (MSS), TLS Record Size
maxRetransmits attribute (DataChannel), Configuring Message Order and Reliability
maxRetransmitTime attribute (DataChannel), Configuring Message Order and Reliability
measuring first-hop latency, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
measuring latency, Last-Mile Latency
Media Capture and Streams (W3C specification), Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMediaAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
documentation for, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
media data, delivering, Delivering Media and Application DataDelivering application data with SCTP
with SRTP/SRTCP, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
MediaStream API, WebRTC
MediaStream object, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMediaAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
tracks within, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
memory cost, Using Multiple TCP Connections
mesh networks, Multiparty Architectures
Message Authenticaion Code (MAC), Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
message classes, Sending Text and Binary Data
message-oriented streaming, WebSocket
messages, Streams, Messages, and Frames
aggregation of, Long-Polling with XHR
delivery of, Null Protocol Services
format of, Subprotocol Negotiation
fragmenting, Binary Framing Layer
WebSocket, Binary Framing Layer
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), Types of Wireless Networks
mobile applications, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
mobile broadband vs. 3G services, Evolution of 3GPP2 technologies
mobile connections, latency and, Brief History of the G’s
mobile devices, radio specification of, User Equipment Category
mobile network optimizations, Optimizing for Mobile NetworksApply Protocol and Application Best Practices
application best practices and, Apply Protocol and Application Best PracticesApply Protocol and Application Best Practices
application keep-alives and, Eliminate Unnecessary Application Keepalives
battery power, preserving, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power
data bursts and, Burst Your Data and Return to IdleBurst Your Data and Return to Idle
latency overhead, anticipating, Anticipate Network Latency OverheadDecouple User Interactions from Network Communication
periodic data transfers and, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data TransfersEliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
protocol best practices and, Apply Protocol and Application Best PracticesApply Protocol and Application Best Practices
RRC state transitions, accounting for, Account for RRC State Transitions
variable network availability, designing for, Design for Variable Network Interface AvailabilityDesign for Variable Network Interface Availability
Wi-Fi network use for, Offload to WiFi Networks
mobile networks, Mobile NetworksReal-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi Performance
3G services, 3GPP and 3GPP2 PartnershipsEvolution of 3GPP2 technologies
3GPP technology, Evolution of 3G Technologies
3GPP2 technology, Evolution of 3GPP technologiesEvolution of 3GPP2 technologies
architecture of, End-to-End Carrier ArchitectureBackhaul Capacity and Latency
backhaul capacity of, Backhaul Capacity and LatencyBackhaul Capacity and Latency
complains about, Initiating a Request
core network, Core Network (CN)Core Network (CN)
devices, Device Features and CapabilitiesUser Equipment Category
battery power, preserving, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power
first data services, First Data Services with 2GFirst Data Services with 2G
future standards for, HSPA+ is Leading Worldwide 4G Adoption
generations of (Gs), Brief History of the G’sBuilding for the Multigeneration Future
heterogeneous networks (HetNets), Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
IMT-Advanced 4G requirements, IMT-Advanced 4G RequirementsIMT-Advanced 4G Requirements
inbound data flow, Inbound Data Flow
jitters in, Initiating a RequestInitiating a Request
latency and, Backhaul Capacity and LatencyBackhaul Capacity and Latency, Initiating a Request
Long Term Evolution (LTE), Long Term Evolution (LTE)Long Term Evolution (LTE)
multi-generational future, planning for, Building for the Multigeneration FutureBuilding for the Multigeneration Future
packet flow on, Packet Flow in a Mobile NetworkInbound Data Flow
performance strategy requirements, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
performance, measuring, Real-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi PerformanceReal-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi Performance
periodic transfers and, Inefficiency of Periodic TransfersInefficiency of Periodic Transfers
Radio Access Network (RAN), Radio Access Network (RAN)Radio Access Network (RAN)
radio power requirements and, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)Inefficiency of Periodic Transfers
real-world performance, measuring, Real-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi PerformanceReal-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi Performance
RRC and, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)Inefficiency of Periodic Transfers
streaming data on, Design for Variable Network Interface Availability
User Equipment category of devices, User Equipment CategoryUser Equipment Category
Mobility Management Entity (MME), Core Network (CN)
modeling wireless network capacity, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
Mozilla, XHR and, Brief History of XHR
multi-party architectures, Multiparty ArchitecturesMultiparty Architectures
multiple hostnames, Domain Sharding
multiple radio streams (MIMO), Measuring Real-World Wireless Performance
multiple TCP connections, Using Multiple TCP Connections, Using Multiple TCP Connections
multiplexing, Using Multiple TCP Connections, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
browser support for, Protocol ExtensionsPerformance Checklist
WebSocket and, Binary Framing Layer
Multiplicative Decrease and Additive Increase (AIMD) algorithm, Congestion Avoidance

N

Nagle, John, Congestion Avoidance and Control
Nagles algorithm, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
NAT
connection-state timeouts and, Connection-State TimeoutsConnection-State Timeouts
ICE and, STUN, TURN, and ICE, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
peer-to-peer communication and, Establishing a Peer-to-Peer Connection
SCTP and, Delivering application data with SCTP
STUN and, STUN, TURN, and ICESTUN, TURN, and ICE
translations, Connection-State Timeouts
traversals, Null Protocol Services, NAT TraversalNAT Traversal
TURN and, STUN, TURN, and ICESTUN, TURN, and ICE
UDP and, UDP and Network Address TranslatorsSTUN, TURN, and ICE
NAT devices
introducing, UDP and Network Address Translators
TCP timeouts and, Connection-State Timeouts
native applications, push delivery and, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
Navigation Timing API, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
benefits of, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
Resource Timing vs., Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
navigator.onLine notifications, Design for Variable Network Interface Availability
near-far problem, Signal Power
negotiating TLS tunnels, TLS Handshake
negotiating tunnels, TLS Handshake
Netscape, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Network Address Translators (see NAT)
Network Control Program (NCP), Congestion Avoidance and Control
network latency, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
chosen, HTTP Pipelining
network requests
concatenation, Concatenation and Spriting
decoupling from user interactions, Decouple User Interactions from Network Communication
spriting, Concatenation and Spriting
network roundtrips, Anticipate Network Latency Overhead
network sockets, lifecycle of, Connection Management and Optimization
network weather, Bandwidth at the Network Edge
networking
bandwidth, Bandwidth in Core NetworksDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
browsers, Primer on Browser Networking
connection management, Connection Management and OptimizationConnection Management and Optimization
latency and, Speed Is a FeatureLast-Mile Latency
performance, Preserve Battery Power
real-time transports for, Real-Time Network TransportsBrief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
sandboxing, Network Security and SandboxingNetwork Security and Sandboxing
secure communications, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
security, Network Security and SandboxingNetwork Security and Sandboxing
speed, Speed Is a FeatureDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
new protocols, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
new request latencies, Initiating a Request
Next Protocol Negotiation (NPN), Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
ALPN and, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
NFC, Ubiquitous Connectivity
NoAck, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
non-text assets, resource inlining, Resource Inlining
notifications, bundling, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
notifications, real time, Real-Time Notifications and DeliveryLong-Polling with XHR
long-polling, Long-Polling with XHRLong-Polling with XHR
polling and, Polling with XHRPolling with XHR
null protocol service, Building Blocks of UDP
UDP as, Null Protocol ServicesNull Protocol Services

O

OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol), Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
CRL vs., Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
size, OCSP Stapling
stapling, OCSP StaplingOCSP Stapling
offloading to Wi-Fi, Leverage Unmetered Bandwidth
one-way latency, user-plane, Building for the Multigeneration Future
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP), Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
Ookla, Bandwidth at the Network Edge
OpenSSL buffers, TLS Record Size
operating system certificates, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
opt-in authentication mechanism, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
optical fibers, Bandwidth in Core Networks
advantages of, Bandwidth in Core Networks
optimizations
application layer, Concatenation and Spriting
document aware, Browser Optimization
evergreen, HTTP/1.X, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
for mobile networks, Optimizing for Mobile NetworksApply Protocol and Application Best Practices
for TCP, Optimizing for TCPPerformance Checklist
for TLS, Optimizing for TLSHTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
for UDP, Optimizing for UDPOptimizing for UDP
for Wi-Fi, Optimizing for WiFi NetworksAdapt to Variable Latency
in Google Chrome, Browser Optimization
interaction, Primer on Web Performance
JavaScript execution, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
protocol, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
resource inlining, Resource Inlining
speculative, Browser Optimization
TTFB for Google Search, Browser Optimization
optimized resource caching, Resource and Client State Caching
OPUS bitrate codec, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
organizing socket pools, Connection Management and Optimization
origins, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
out-of-band negotiation, Setup and Negotiation

P

packet flow
between private networks, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
initiating requests on mobile networks, Initiating a RequestInitiating a Request
on mobile networks, Packet Flow in a Mobile NetworkInbound Data Flow
packet gateway (PGW), Core Network (CN)
packet loss, Head-of-Line Blocking
DTLS and, Secure Communication with DTLS
on Wi-Fi networks, Packet Loss in WiFi NetworksPacket Loss in WiFi Networks
partially reliable channels and, Partially Reliable Delivery and Message SizePartially Reliable Delivery and Message Size
with TCP on wireless networks, Packet Loss in WiFi Networks
packet trace files, Preserve Battery Power
page layout, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
page load time (PLT), Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
improving, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
page pre-rendering, Browser Optimization
page rendering, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, Networking
parallel transmissions, 3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements
parallelism
benefits of, Using Multiple TCP Connections
high level of, Domain Sharding
path attenuation, Signal Power
path loss, Signal Power
peak spectral efficiency, Brief History of the G’s
peer-to-peer connections, Establishing a Peer-to-Peer Connection
between private networks, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
connectivity status and, Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity StatusTracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
initiating connections, Initiating a WebRTC connectionInitiating a WebRTC connection
multi-party architectures, Multiparty ArchitecturesMultiparty Architectures
optimization as service, Multiparty Architectures
responding to connections, Responding to a WebRTC connectionResponding to a WebRTC connection
SDP and, Session Description Protocol (SDP)Session Description Protocol (SDP)
session negotiation, Signaling and Session NegotiationPerformance Checklist
signaling, Signaling and Session NegotiationResponding to a WebRTC connection
Skype as, Signaling and Session Negotiation
Trickle ICE protocol, Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)
performance
browsers, Primer on Browser Networking
socket pools and, Connection Management and Optimization
performance bottlenecks
bandwidth, Leverage Unmetered Bandwidth
cookies, Measuring and Controlling Protocol Overhead
identifying, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
performance characterisics
international, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
Wi-Fi networks, Optimizing for WiFi Networks
performance components
bandwidth, Speed Is a Feature
latency, Speed Is a Feature
performance gains, HTTP Pipelining
performance regressions
fixing, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
identifying, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
performance strategy, establishing, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
performance.timing object, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
periodic data transfers, Inefficiency of Periodic TransfersInefficiency of Periodic Transfers
eliminating, for mobile networks, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data TransfersEliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
Personal Area Network (PAN), Types of Wireless Networks
physical application connectivity, Core Network (CN)
picocells, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
pipelining, HTTP PipeliningHTTP Pipelining
application-layer, Concatenation and Spriting
benefits of, HTTP Pipelining
costs of, Using Multiple TCP Connections
detecting compatibility, HTTP Pipelining
enabling, HTTP Pipelining
support, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF), Core Network (CN)
polling, Polling with XHRPolling with XHR
implementing, Polling with XHR
long-polling, Long-Polling with XHRLong-Polling with XHR
periodic, Long-Polling with XHR
push delivery vs., Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
polyfill libraries, EventSource API, WebSocket API
pools, Connection Management and Optimization
port tuples, UDP and Network Address Translators
Postel, John, Building Blocks of UDP
PowerSave mechanism, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
prefetch models
building, Burst Your Data and Return to Idle
evaluating, Burst Your Data and Return to Idle
prefetching resources, Browser Optimization
preflight requests, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
presentation layer, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
preserving batteries, Account for RRC State Transitions
probabilistic access model, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
processing
delay, The Many Components of Latency
in parallel, HTTP Pipelining
propagation
delay, The Many Components of Latency
latency, Request and Response Streaming
Proportional Rate Reduction (PRR), Congestion Avoidance
protocol(s)
new, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
optimizations, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
overhead measuring/controlling, Measuring and Controlling Protocol OverheadMeasuring and Controlling Protocol Overhead
proxies, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
and peer-to-peer communications, Multiparty Architectures
WebSocket and, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), Standards and Development of WebRTC
public IPs, UDP and Network Address Translators
discovering, STUN, TURN, and ICE
public key cryptography
performance of, RSA, Diffie-Hellman and Forward Secrecy
symmetric vs., RSA, Diffie-Hellman and Forward Secrecy
push deliver, native applications and, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
push delivery, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers
PUSH PROMISE frames, Server Push

R

radio capabilities, Device Features and Capabilities
radio interface, using, Preserve Battery Power
Radio Resource Controller (RRC), Radio Resource Controller (RRC)Inefficiency of Periodic Transfers
scheduling and, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
radio specification of mobile devices, User Equipment Category
RAN (Radio Access Network), 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships, Radio Access Network (RAN)Radio Access Network (RAN)
Real-Time Communication in Web-browsers (RTCWEB), Standards and Development of WebRTC
real-time frameworks, WebSocket API
real-user measurement (RUM), Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
analyzing, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
receive windows (rwnd), Flow Control
reduced protocol overhead, Concatenation and Spriting
reducing DNS lookups, HTTP/1.X, Evergreen Performance Best Practices
reducing latency, HTTP/2
reduction of signal power, Signal Power
reliable attribute (DataChannel), Configuring Message Order and Reliability
render trees, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
replicating data, Early Termination
request bytes, streamlining, Eliminate Unnecessary Request BytesEliminate Unnecessary Request Bytes
request formatting, Network Security and Sandboxing
request prioritization, Stream PrioritizationStream Prioritization
request streaming, XHR and, Uploading Data with XHR
request/response multiplexing, Request and Response MultiplexingRequest and Response Multiplexing
requirements, User Equipment category, User Equipment Category
researching HTTP/2, One Connection Per Origin
resource caching, Resource and Client State CachingResource and Client State Caching
efficient, Resource and Client State Caching
optimized, Resource and Client State Caching
resource inlining, Server Push
in HTTP/1.x, Resource InliningResource Inlining
non-text assets and, Resource Inlining
text-based assets and, Resource Inlining
Resource Timing, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
resource waterfall, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
resource(s)
loading, Parallelize Request and Response Processing
prefetching, Browser Optimization
prioritization, Browser Optimization
waterfalls, Anatomy of a Modern Web ApplicationAnalyzing the Resource Waterfall
response processing, Network Security and Sandboxing
response times, Parallelize Request and Response Processing
responseType attribute, Streaming Data with XHR
responsive design, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
root certificate authority, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
routers, SCTP and, Delivering application data with SCTP
RRC (Radio Resource Controller), Radio Resource Controller (RRC)Inefficiency of Periodic Transfers
EV-DO state machines for, EV-DO (CDMA) RRC State MachineEV-DO (CDMA) RRC State Machine
LTE, state machine for, LTE RRC State MachineLTE RRC State Machine
periodic transfers and, Inefficiency of Periodic TransfersInefficiency of Periodic Transfers
radio power requirements and, 3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements
state transitions, accounting for, Account for RRC State Transitions
RRC Connected, LTE RRC State Machine
RRC Idle, LTE RRC State Machine
RTCDataChannel API, WebRTC
WebRTC requirements for, Delivering application data with SCTP
RTCPeerConnection API, WebRTC, Brief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection APIBrief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
adding/removing streams from, Initiating a WebRTC connection
createOffer(), Session Description Protocol (SDP)
ICE protocol and, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)Tracking ICE Gathering and Connectivity Status
JSEP and, Session Description Protocol (SDP)
RTCWEB (Real-Time Communication in Web-browsers), Standards and Development of WebRTC

S

same-origin policy, Network Security and Sandboxing, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
restrictions of, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
WebSocket, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
sandboxing, Primer on Browser Networking, Network Security and SandboxingNetwork Security and Sandboxing
scheduling communication, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
RRC and, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
scheduling Wi-Fi transmissions, Packet Loss in WiFi Networks
SCTP, Delivering application data with SCTPDelivering application data with SCTP
and head-of-line blocking, Delivering application data with SCTP
framing layer vs., Delivering application data with SCTP
naked, Delivering application data with SCTP
packet format, Delivering application data with SCTP
SDP, Session Description Protocol (SDP)Session Description Protocol (SDP)
createOffer() and, Session Description Protocol (SDP)
Jingle protocol and, Session Description Protocol (SDP)
mapping to XMPP, Session Description Protocol (SDP)
Secure Real-time Control Transport Protocol (see SRTCP)
Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (see SRTP)
secure web applications, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
selective acknowledgments (SACK), Optimizing for TCP
server kernels, upgrading, Tuning Server Configuration
server name indication (see SNI)
server processing time, Benefits of Keepalive Connections
server pushes, Server Push
forced, Server Push
PUSH PROMISE and, Server Push
server response time, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
Server Sent Events (SSE), Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers, Using Multiple TCP Connections
server-sent events (see SSE)
Serving Gateway (SGW), Core Network (CN)
session caching, Session Tickets
Session Description Protocol (see SDP)
session identifiers, Session IdentifiersSession Identifiers, Session Caching and Stateless Resumption
leveraging, Session Identifiers
limitations, Session Identifiers
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Signaling and Session Negotiation
session management, Resource and Client State Caching
session resumption (TLS), TLS Session ResumptionSession Tickets
session identifiers, Session IdentifiersSession Identifiers
session tickets, Session Tickets
session state management, deferring, Resource and Client State Caching
session tickets, Session Tickets
records, Session Tickets
Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (see STUN)
SessionTicket (extension), Session Tickets
settings frames, Server Push
Sever-Sent Events, Streaming Data with XHR
Shannon, Claude E., Performance Fundamentals of Wireless Networks
short discontinuous reception (Short DRX), LTE RRC State Machine
signal latencies, Speed of Light and Propagation Latency
signal power (wireless networks), Signal PowerSignal Power
reduction of, Signal Power
signaling channel, Signaling and Session Negotiation
trickle ICE and, Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)
signaling gateway, Signaling and Session Negotiation
choosing, Signaling and Session Negotiation
custom, Signaling and Session Negotiation
signaling protocols, Signaling and Session Negotiation
signaling server, Signaling and Session Negotiation
services for, Signaling and Session NegotiationResponding to a WebRTC connection
SimpleWebRTC, Responding to a WebRTC connection
size of socket pools, Connection Management and Optimization
Skype, Signaling and Session Negotiation
slicing files, Uploading Data with XHR
slow response times, Optimizing for Mobile Networks
slow start, Slow-StartSlow-Start
streaming and, Slow-Start
slow start algorithm, Slow-Start
Slow-Start Restart, Slow-Start
smartphone chaching, Cache Resources on the Client
SMS (text messaging), First Data Services with 2G
snapshot in HTTP/2, Request and Response Multiplexing
SNI, Server Name Indication (SNI)Server Name Indication (SNI)
socket pools, Connection Management and Optimization
automatic, Connection Management and Optimization
performance and, Connection Management and Optimization
size limit, Connection Management and Optimization
Socket.IO, WebSocket API
sockets, deferring management of, Network Security and Sandboxing
source port, Null Protocol Services
SPDY (Google), Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
goals of, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
HTTP/2 and, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
PLT, Brief History of SPDY and HTTP/2
protocol for, Latency as a Performance Bottleneck
zlib and, Header Compression
speculative optimization, Browser Optimization
in Google Chrome, Connection Management and Optimization
speed, Speed Is a FeatureDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
bandwidth, Bandwidth in Core NetworksDelivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
human perception of, Speed, Performance, and Human PerceptionSpeed, Performance, and Human Perception
ICE negotiation and, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
latency and, Speed Is a FeatureLast-Mile Latency
of web applications, Speed, Performance, and Human PerceptionSpeed, Performance, and Human Perception
STUN servers and, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
spriting, Concatenation and Spriting
SRCP, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
adapting to WebRTC, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
SRTCP, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
adapting to WebRTC, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
SSE, Server-Sent Events (SSE)SSE Use Cases and Performance
binary transfers with, Event Stream Protocol
event stream protocol, Event Stream ProtocolEvent Stream Protocol
EventSource API and, EventSource APIEventSource API, SSE Use Cases and Performance
implementing, EventSource API
limitations, SSE Use Cases and Performance
performance measurements for, SSE Use Cases and Performance
TLS and, SSE Use Cases and Performance
use cases for, SSE Use Cases and Performance
UTF-8 encoding with, Event Stream Protocol
SSL protocol
development, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
standardizing, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
using, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
standards
3GPP and, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
3GPP2 and, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
development of, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
Ethernet, WiFi
future mobile networks, HSPA+ is Leading Worldwide 4G Adoption
HSPA, User Equipment Category
international, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
Long Term Evolution (LTE), Long Term Evolution (LTE)
LTE-Advanced, IMT-Advanced 4G Requirements
SSL protocol, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
WebSocket, WebSocket
wireless, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
WMM, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
stateless resumption, Session Tickets
sticky load balancing, Session Caching and Stateless Resumption
storage, in browsers, Primer on Browser Networking
stream ciphers, Secure Communication with DTLS
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (see SCTP)
streaming data
bidirectional, WebSocket
custom protocols and, Custom Application Protocols
custom protocols over, Custom Application ProtocolsCustom Application Protocols
message-oriented, WebSocket
on mobile networks, Design for Variable Network Interface Availability
request/response streaming, Request and Response Streaming
server-to-client, Server-Sent Events (SSE)
Sever-Sent Events, Streaming Data with XHR
slow start and, Slow-Start
text-based, Server-Sent Events (SSE)
WebRTC and, Audio, Video, and Data StreamingAudio, Video, and Data Streaming
WebSocket, Streaming Data with XHR, WebSocket Use Cases and Performance
with XMLHttpRequest (XHR), Streaming Data with XHRStreaming Data with XHR
XHR, Server-Sent Events (SSE)
streaming videos, Bandwidth at the Network Edge
streams, Streams, Messages, and Frames
STUN protocol, STUN, TURN, and ICE
and WebRTC, Infrastructure and Capacity Planning
lookups, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
NAT and, STUN, TURN, and ICESTUN, TURN, and ICE
test servers for, Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
TURN vs., STUN, TURN, and ICE
suboptimal delivery, HTTP Pipelining
supernodes, Multiparty Architectures
symmetric key cryptography
performance of, RSA, Diffie-Hellman and Forward Secrecy
public vs., RSA, Diffie-Hellman and Forward Secrecy
SYN ACK, Three-Way Handshake
SYN packet, Three-Way Handshake
synthetic testing, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement

T

TCP, Building Blocks of TCPPerformance Checklist
alternatives to, Head-of-Line Blocking
application behavior, tuning, Tuning Application Behavior
bandwidth-delay product, Bandwidth-Delay ProductBandwidth-Delay Product
congestion avoidance, Congestion AvoidanceCongestion Avoidance
congestion, controlling, Congestion Avoidance and ControlSlow-Start
connections, terminating, HTTP Pipelining
flow control of, Flow ControlFlow Control
handshake phase, Three-Way Handshake
head-of-line blocking, Head-of-Line BlockingHead-of-Line Blocking
history, Building Blocks of TCP
HTTP/2 and, One Connection Per OriginOne Connection Per Origin
multiple connections with HTTP, Using Multiple TCP ConnectionsUsing Multiple TCP Connections
optimizing for, Optimizing for TCPPerformance Checklist
packet loss on Wi-Fi networks, Packet Loss in WiFi Networks
pre-connect, Browser Optimization
server settings, tuning, Tuning Server ConfigurationTuning Server Configuration
settings, tuning, Tuning Server Configuration
slow start and, Slow-StartSlow-Start
specifications, Flow Control
terminating connection, HTTP Pipelining
three-way handshake for, Three-Way HandshakeThree-Way Handshake
timeouts, NAT devices and, Connection-State Timeouts
tuning, Optimizing for TCP
UDP vs., Optimizing for UDP
TCP connections, Three-Way Handshake
multiple, Using Multiple TCP Connections, Using Multiple TCP Connections
TCP Fast Open (TFO), Three-Way Handshake
TCP Window Scaling, Flow Control
enabling, Flow Control
TCP/IP, Building Blocks of TCP
tcpdump method, Preserve Battery Power
TeleGeography, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
testing web performance, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
text data
receiving, Receiving Text and Binary DataReceiving Text and Binary Data
sending, Sending Text and Binary DataSending Text and Binary Data
text messaging (SMS), First Data Services with 2G
text-based assets
compressing, HTTP/1.X
resource inlining and, Resource Inlining
server-to-client streaming, Server-Sent Events (SSE)
size, Compress Transferred Data
throughput performance, 3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements
time and user perception, Speed, Performance, and Human Perception
timeouts and connection-state, Connection-State TimeoutsConnection-State Timeouts
TLS, Transport Layer Security (TLS)Testing and Verification
ALPN and, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
authentication, Encryption, Authentication, and IntegrityEncryption, Authentication, and Integrity
certificate authorities, Chain of Trust and Certificate AuthoritiesChain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
certificate revocation, Certificate RevocationOnline Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
certificate-chain length and, Certificate-Chain LengthCertificate-Chain Length
chain of trust, Chain of Trust and Certificate AuthoritiesChain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
compression, TLS CompressionTLS Compression
compression disabling, TLS Compression
computational costs of, Computational CostsComputational Costs
connections, establishing, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
design, Transport Layer Security (TLS)
DTLS and, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
DTLS vs., Secure Communication with DTLS
early session termination and, Early TerminationEarly Termination
encryption, Encryption, Authentication, and IntegrityEncryption, Authentication, and Integrity
handshake, TLS HandshakeServer Name Indication (SNI)
HSTS and, HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
integrity of, Encryption, Authentication, and IntegrityEncryption, Authentication, and Integrity
negotiation, Network Security and Sandboxing
OCSP stapling, OCSP StaplingOCSP Stapling
optimizing for, Optimizing for TLSHTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
record protocol, TLS Record ProtocolTLS Record Protocol
record size of, TLS Record SizeTLS Record Size
session caching, Session Caching and Stateless Resumption
session resumption, TLS Session ResumptionSession Tickets, Computational Costs
SNI and, Server Name Indication (SNI)Server Name Indication (SNI)
SSE streaming over, SSE Use Cases and Performance
stateless resumption, Session Caching and Stateless Resumption
testing/verifying configuration of, Testing and VerificationTesting and Verification
tunnels, encrypted, Server Name Indication (SNI)
tunnels, negotiating, TLS Handshake
WebSocket with, Deploying WebSocket Infrastructure
TLS record protocol
IP vs., TLS Record Protocol
optimum size, TLS Record Size
TLS+SNI workflow, Server Name Indication (SNI)
Traceroute, Last-Mile Latency
trading algorithms, latency and, Speed Is a Feature
transactional request-response communication, Request and Response Streaming
transmission
delay, The Many Components of Latency
parallel, 3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements
Transmission Control Protocol (see TCP)
Transport Layer Security (see TLS)
Traversal Using Relays around NAT protocol (see TURN protocol)
Trickle ICE protocol, Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)Incremental Provisioning (Trickle ICE)
trust anchor, Chain of Trust and Certificate Authorities
TTFB, optimizing for Google Search, Browser Optimization
tuning TCP, Optimizing for TCP
tunnels, negotiating, TLS Handshake
TURN protocol, STUN, TURN, and ICE
and WebRTC, Infrastructure and Capacity Planning
NAT and, STUN, TURN, and ICESTUN, TURN, and ICE
STUN vs., STUN, TURN, and ICE
Twitter, Computational Costs

U

UDP, Building Blocks of UDPOptimizing for UDP
as null protocol service, Null Protocol ServicesNull Protocol Services
connection-state timeouts and, Connection-State TimeoutsConnection-State Timeouts
DataChannel vs., Brief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
delivering outbound traffic, Connection-State Timeouts
for media streaming, Real-Time Network TransportsBrief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
NAT and, UDP and Network Address TranslatorsSTUN, TURN, and ICE
NAT traversals, NAT TraversalNAT Traversal
non-services, Null Protocol Services
optimizations for, Optimizing for UDPOptimizing for UDP
TCP vs., Optimizing for UDP
transmit with, NAT Traversal
understanding, Null Protocol Services
UDP protocol fields, Null Protocol Services
checksum, Null Protocol Services
destination port, Null Protocol Services
length of packet, Null Protocol Services
source port, Null Protocol Services
UMTS RRC State Machine, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State MachineHSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
cell DCH, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
cell FACH, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
idle, HSPA and HSPA+ (UMTS) RRC State Machine
UMTS-based networks, Evolution of 3G Technologies
limitations on, EV-DO (CDMA) RRC State Machine
uncached origin fetch, Early Termination
understanding UDP, Null Protocol Services
unstable Wi-Fi performance, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
untrusted application code, Network Security and Sandboxing
updating
applications, Concatenation and Spriting
browsers, Upgrading to HTTP/2
upgrade flow, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
upgrade mechanisms, Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
HTTP/2, HTTP/2
upgrading server kernel versions, Tuning Server Configuration
uploading data
monitoring, Monitoring Download and Upload ProgressMonitoring Download and Upload Progress
with XMLHttpRequest (XHR), Uploading Data with XHRUploading Data with XHR
URL schemes, WS and WSS URL Schemes
User Datagram Protocol (see UDP)
user devices
battery power, preserving, Preserve Battery PowerPreserve Battery Power
mobile networks, Device Features and CapabilitiesUser Equipment Category
RRC state transitions, accounting for, Account for RRC State Transitions
User Equipment category of, User Equipment CategoryUser Equipment Category
User Equipment (UE) category requirements, User Equipment Category
User Timing, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
user, time perception of, Speed, Performance, and Human Perception
user-plane latency, Initiating a Request
one-way, Building for the Multigeneration Future
UTF-8 encoding
SSE and, Event Stream Protocol

W

W3C Web Performance Working Group, Synthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
W3C Working Group, Standards and Development of WebRTC
warm connection pool, Early Termination
wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), Bandwidth in Core Networks
improving, Delivering Higher Bandwidth and Lower Latencies
wavelengths, Bandwidth in Core Networks
web applications
anatomy of, Anatomy of a Modern Web ApplicationAnalyzing the Resource Waterfall
application protocols for, Application APIs and ProtocolsApplication APIs and Protocols
authentication, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
binary framing layer and, Sending Application Data
browsers, optimizing for, Browser OptimizationBrowser Optimization
caching resources on client, Cache Resources on the ClientCache Resources on the Client
compressing transferred data, Compress Transferred Data
data, delivering, Delivering Media and Application DataDelivering application data with SCTP
defined, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
designing, Primer on Browser Networking
encryption, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
Evergreen performance best practices, Evergreen Performance Best PracticesParallelize Request and Response Processing
HTTP/1.x optimizations, Optimizing for HTTP/1.x
HTTP/2 optimizations, Optimizing for HTTP/2
hypertext documents vs., Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web ApplicationsHypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
improving performance of, Measuring and Controlling Protocol Overhead
installing, Anatomy of a Modern Web Application
integrity, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
optimizing delivery of, Optimizing Application Delivery
performance of, measuring, Synthetic and Real-User Performance MeasurementSynthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
SCTP, delivering data with, Delivering application data with SCTPDelivering application data with SCTP
secure, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity
sending data, Sending Application Data
size, TLS Record Protocol
web pages vs., Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web ApplicationsHypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
Web Audio API, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
web pages
defined, Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
HTTP documents vs., Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web ApplicationsHypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
web applications vs., Hypertext, Web Pages, and Web ApplicationsHypertext, Web Pages, and Web Applications
web performance, Primer on Web PerformanceBrowser Optimization
bandwidth and, More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (Much)More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (Much)
browsers, optimizing for, Browser OptimizationBrowser Optimization
computing time and, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, NetworkingLatency as a Performance Bottleneck
cost and, Speed, Performance, and Human Perception
human perception of, Speed, Performance, and Human PerceptionSpeed, Performance, and Human Perception
latency and, Latency as a Performance BottleneckLatency as a Performance Bottleneck
measuring with synthetic/real-user data, Synthetic and Real-User Performance MeasurementSynthetic and Real-User Performance Measurement
rendering and, Performance Pillars: Computing, Rendering, NetworkingLatency as a Performance Bottleneck
resource waterfall, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
resource waterfalls, Anatomy of a Modern Web ApplicationAnalyzing the Resource Waterfall
testing, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
web applications, anatomy of, Anatomy of a Modern Web ApplicationAnalyzing the Resource Waterfall
Web Real-Time Communication (see WebRTC)
WebGL API, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
WebKit-based browsers, Data Efficiency and Compression
WebPageTest website, Analyzing the Resource Waterfall
WebRTC, Building Blocks of UDP, WebRTC
audio/video engines and, Audio and Video EnginesAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
audio/video streams with, Audio, Video, and Data StreamingAudio, Video, and Data Streaming
audio/video streams, acquiring, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMediaAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
capacity planning and, Infrastructure and Capacity PlanningInfrastructure and Capacity Planning
Chrome support for, WebRTC
data compression, Data Efficiency and Compression
data efficiency of, Data Efficiency and Compression
DataChannel and, DataChannelPartially Reliable Delivery and Message Size
development of, Standards and Development of WebRTC
DTLS and, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
Firefox support for, WebRTC
getUserMedia and, Acquiring Audio and Video with getUserMediaAcquiring Audio and Video with getUserMedia
infrastructure planning and, Infrastructure and Capacity PlanningInfrastructure and Capacity Planning
initiating connections, Initiating a WebRTC connectionInitiating a WebRTC connection
media data, delivering, Delivering Media and Application DataDelivering application data with SCTP
multi-party architectures and, Multiparty ArchitecturesMultiparty Architectures
network transports for, Real-Time Network TransportsBrief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
peer-to-peer connections, establishing, Establishing a Peer-to-Peer Connection
protocol stack for, Real-Time Network Transports
responding to connections, Responding to a WebRTC connectionResponding to a WebRTC connection
RTCDataChannel requirements, Delivering application data with SCTP
RTCPeerConnection API, Brief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection APIBrief Introduction to RTCPeerConnection API
SCTP, delivering application data with, Delivering application data with SCTPDelivering application data with SCTP
secure communications, Secure Communication with DTLSSecure Communication with DTLS
SimpleWebRTC, Responding to a WebRTC connection
SRCP, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
SRTCP, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCPDelivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
SRTCP, adapting to, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
SRTP, adapting to, Delivering Media with SRTP and SRTCP
STUN servers and, Infrastructure and Capacity Planning
TURN protocol and, Infrastructure and Capacity Planning
use cases for, WebRTC Use Cases and PerformanceData Efficiency and Compression
WEBRTC (Web Real-Time Communications) API, Standards and Development of WebRTC
webrtc.org (website), Audio and Video Engines
WebSocket, Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity, Eliminate Periodic and Inefficient Data Transfers, Using Multiple TCP Connections, WebSocket
API, WebSocket APISubprotocol Negotiation
Asterisk module for, Signaling and Session Negotiation
binary transfers and, Custom Application Protocols
client applications, Binary Framing Layer
custom protocols via streaming, Custom Application ProtocolsCustom Application Protocols
data efficiency/compression with, Data Efficiency and Compression
emulating, WebSocket API
enabling extensions, Protocol Extensions
EventSource API vs., WebSocket API
frames, Binary Framing Layer
headers, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
infrastructure, deploying, Deploying WebSocket InfrastructureDeploying WebSocket Infrastructure
intermediaries and, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
Key and Accept handshake, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
message format, Subprotocol Negotiation
message overhead, Message Overhead
messages, Binary Framing Layer
multiplexing extension, Binary Framing Layer
multiplexing in, Binary Framing Layer
per-message compression extension, Data Efficiency and Compression
performance measurements of, WebSocket Use Cases and PerformanceDeploying WebSocket Infrastructure
protocol, WebSocket Protocol
proxies and, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
request/response streaming, Request and Response Streaming
same origin policy and, HTTP Upgrade Negotiation
server applications, Binary Framing Layer
standards, WebSocket
streaming data, Streaming Data with XHR, WebSocket Use Cases and Performance
subprotocol negotiation API, Subprotocol Negotiation
use cases, WebSocket Use Cases and PerformanceDeploying WebSocket Infrastructure
using TLS with, Deploying WebSocket Infrastructure
wire protocol, WebSocket Protocol
WebSocket API, WebSocket APISubprotocol Negotiation
binary data, receiving, Receiving Text and Binary DataReceiving Text and Binary Data
binary data, sending, Sending Text and Binary DataSending Text and Binary Data
DataChannel API vs., DataChannel
subprotocol negotiation, Subprotocol NegotiationSubprotocol Negotiation
text data, receiving, Receiving Text and Binary DataReceiving Text and Binary Data
text data, sending, Sending Text and Binary DataSending Text and Binary Data
WS URL scheme, WS and WSS URL Schemes
WSS URL scheme, WS and WSS URL Schemes
WebSocket protocol, WebSocket Protocol
API vs., Subprotocol NegotiationSubprotocol Negotiation
binary framing layer and, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
extensions, Protocol Extensions
head-of-line blocking, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
HTTP upgrade negotiation, HTTP Upgrade NegotiationHTTP Upgrade Negotiation
in the wild, Protocol ExtensionsHTTP Upgrade Negotiation
multiplexing, Binary Framing LayerBinary Framing Layer
multiplexing, in the wild, Protocol ExtensionsHTTP Upgrade Negotiation
Wi-Fi Alliance, WiFi
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) extension, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) standard, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
Wi-Fi networks, Ubiquitous Connectivity, WiFiAdapt to Variable Latency
4G wireless performance vs., Building for the Multigeneration Future
access points, Radio Resource Controller (RRC)
bandwidth bottlenecks and, Leverage Unmetered Bandwidth
Ethernet vs., From Ethernet to a Wireless LANFrom Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
features of, WiFi Standards and FeaturesWiFi Standards and Features
first-hop latency, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
history, WiFi Standards and Features
improve performance of, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
mobile network applications and, Offload to WiFi Networks
optimizations for, Optimizing for WiFi NetworksAdapt to Variable Latency
packet loss on, Packet Loss in WiFi NetworksPacket Loss in WiFi Networks
performance of, increase, WiFi Standards and Features
performance of, measuring, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi PerformancePacket Loss in WiFi Networks
Quality of Service (QoS), Measuring and Optimizing WiFi Performance
radio power requirements and, 3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements3G, 4G, and WiFi Power Requirements
real-world performance, measuring, Real-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi PerformanceReal-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi Performance
standards for, WiFi Standards and FeaturesWiFi Standards and Features
TCP packet loss and, Packet Loss in WiFi Networks
unmetered bandwidth and, Leverage Unmetered BandwidthLeverage Unmetered Bandwidth
unstable, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
variable bandwidth, adapting to, Adapt to Variable BandwidthAdapt to Variable Bandwidth
variable latency, adapting to, Adapt to Variable Latency
WMM extension, Measuring and Optimizing WiFi PerformancePacket Loss in WiFi Networks
Wi-Fi offloading, Leverage Unmetered Bandwidth
Wi-Fi transmissions, scheduling, Packet Loss in WiFi Networks
Wide Are Network (WAN), Types of Wireless Networks
WiMax, Ubiquitous Connectivity
window scaling, Flow Control
on Linux, Flow Control
window size negotiation, Bandwidth-Delay Product
wired applications, Ubiquitous Connectivity
wireless data services, demand for, 3GPP and 3GPP2 Partnerships
wireless extensions, providing, WiFi
Wireless LAN (WLAN), From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
wireless latencies, Latency as a Performance Bottleneck
wireless networks, Ubiquitous ConnectivityMeasuring Real-World Wireless Performance
bandwidth for, BandwidthBandwidth
communication over, Optimizing Physical and Transport Layers
constraints, Performance Fundamentals of Wireless Networks
limitations, Performance Fundamentals of Wireless Networks, Signal Power
Local Area Network (LAN), Types of Wireless Networks
managing capacity, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), Types of Wireless Networks
mobile networks, Mobile NetworksReal-World 3G, 4G, and WiFi Performance
modeling capacity, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
modulation of, ModulationModulation
performance, Performance Fundamentals of Wireless NetworksModulation
Personal Area Network (PAN), Types of Wireless Networks
real-world performance, measuring, Measuring Real-World Wireless PerformanceMeasuring Real-World Wireless Performance
signal power, Signal PowerSignal Power
types of, Types of Wireless NetworksTypes of Wireless Networks
Wi-Fi, WiFiAdapt to Variable Latency
Wide Area Network (WAN), Types of Wireless Networks
wireless standards, From Ethernet to a Wireless LAN
evolution of, Building for the Multigeneration Future
wireless technologies, Ubiquitous Connectivity
perfromance criteria, Ubiquitous Connectivity
principles, Ubiquitous Connectivity
tradeoffs, Ubiquitous Connectivity
worldwide cellular connections, Mobile Networks
worldwide spectrum allocation, Bandwidth
worldwide spectrum regulation, Bandwidth
WS URL scheme, WS and WSS URL Schemes
WSS URL scheme, WS and WSS URL Schemes