# Chapter 3. Typography and Font Conventions

The following shows the basic font conventions used in O’Reilly books. Follow these links for detailed instructions for applying these styles in Asciidoc, DocBook, and Word.

 Type of element Final result Filenames, file extensions (such as .jpeg), directory paths, commands in Unix, Oracle, SQL, and Linux books Body font italic URLs, URIs, email addresses Body font italic Emphasized words (shouting!) Body font italic First instance of a technical term Body font italic Code blocks Constant width Registry keys Constant width Language and script elements: class names, types, namespaces, attributes, methods, variables, keywords, functions, modules, commands, properties, parameters, values, objects, events, XML and HTML tags, and similar elements. Some examples include: System.Web.UI, a while loop, the Socket class, and the Obsolete attribute. Exception: commands in Unix, Oracle, SQL, and Linux book, which are regular italics. Constant width Replaceable items (placeholder items in syntax); “username” in the following example is a placeholder: login: username Constant width italic Commands or text to be typed by the user Constant width bold Line annotations Body font italic (but smaller) Placeholders in paths, directories, GUI items, URLs, or other text that would be italic anyway http://www..com Keyboard accelerators (Ctrl, Shift, etc.), menu titles, menu options, menu buttons Body text

These font conventions may vary slightly for each project; please consult your editor, the production editor, or the freelance coordinator if you have any questions. Please note: Word authors should refer to the Word author Quick Start Guide (username: guest; leave the password blank); DocBook authors should refer to our DocBook Authoring Guidelines (username: guest; leave the password blank).

It’s very important to follow tagging conventions for terms. The method for applying conventions will vary depending on the format: Word/OpenOffice, DocBook XML, or InDesign. Please consult with your editor or toolsreq@oreilly.com for instructions specific to each environment.

For Word copyediting, please do the following before submitting files for conversion: replace any tabs in code with the appropriate number of spaces (see earlier section, “Code”); convert any remaining Word comments to tagged Comment paragraphs highlighted in blue; search for any manual linebreaks (^l) and delete or replace with paragraph breaks as appropriate; and accept all changes and make sure filenames adhere to house style.

If you’re an author, and you want to use a font convention that is slightly different for one of the following items, check with your editor first—some things can change; some can’t.

For instance, URLs will not be anything but italic, but you might come up with a different font convention for function names or menu items. If you do use something that differs from the following list, please write it down on your printout of this stylesheet, which should be submitted with your manuscript.

Or, if you have a “new” element, please consult with your editor about which font to use, then write it on your printout and submit it with your manuscript.