The insect on the cover of iPhone 3D Programming is a grasshopper (insects of the suborder Caelifera). To date, there have been over 11,000 different species discovered, about 660 of which are found in North America. They thrive in all kinds of habitats, including the rainforest, grasslands, and deserts.

Grasshoppers have short antennae, wings, and large back legs that allow them to jump nearly 20 times their body length. Their legs also help produce the familiar chirping sound grasshoppers are known for when they rub against the insect’s abdomen.

Several species of grasshopper are categorized as locusts, due to their habit of swarming. These swarms come about when locusts are overcrowded. All grasshoppers feed on grass and other live plant matter, consuming roughly 16 times their weight each day. Most species are green or brown so they can camouflage themselves from predators, although more colorful grasshoppers can be found in tropical climates. If picked up or otherwise threatened, grasshoppers will spit out a brownish liquid known colloquially as “tobacco juice.”

Grasshoppers are the only kosher insects—Leviticus 11:21–22 forbids the consumption of any flying insect with legs, except for the locust. A locust swarm was also one of the biblical plagues of Egypt.

The cover image is from the Dover Pictorial Archive. The cover font is Adobe ITC Garamond. The text font is Linotype Birka; the heading font is Adobe Myriad Condensed; and the code font is LucasFont’s TheSansMonoCondensed.